Aspects of European History, 1789-1980 (University by Stephen J. Lee

By Stephen J. Lee

During this sequel to his renowned facets of ecu background, 1494 - 1789, Stephen J. Lee charts the main normally encountered themes of 19th and 20th century heritage, from the origins of the French Revolution, during the social and political reforms and upheavals of the final centuries to the current. invaluable and available, the publication contains: * an invigorating consultant and sound resource of history fabric * brief analytical chapters* an interpretative method of background, delivering a number of viewpoints on each one topic* either a extensive survey and particular reviews* stimulation for student's skill to increase and make clear subject* a cautious constitution which aids notetaking, coaching of essays and revision. Any scholar of ecu heritage may want to have this ebook at their side throughout their path reviews.

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Elsewhere, peasant grievances mounted; conditions were exacerbated by the depression and the bad harvests of the mid-1840s. It is probable that widespread peasant revolts within the Empire were forestalled only by the outbreak of a wider pattern of revolutions in 1848. The peoples of the Habsburg Monarchy 1815–1908 To Metternich, the Austrian Empire was the repository of the only type of conservatism which was likely to succeed in Europe—one which avoided the French pattern of compromise with constitutionalism and also the more brutal Russian model.

By far the most militant of the revolutionaries of 1848 were the artisans, especially metalworkers in Paris, and weavers in Berlin. They had been a volatile element of the population for several decades because everywhere they were confronted by the problems brought about by economic changes. Increased production in every major European state reduced the emphasis on skilled labour and opened a wide gap between masters and journeymen. A potent revolutionary factor has always been the deterioration of once acceptable conditions and the removal of a long-established means of upward social and economic mobility (see Chapter 1); this was becoming increasingly common by the mid-nineteenth century as industrialization made the progression from journeyman to master more difficult, and threatened to depress the skilled worker to the level of labourer.

He disliked the extent of Metternich’s conservatism and opposed the Troppau Protocol, but was also prepared to concede that Austrian intervention in Naples (1821) had a juridical basis, since the Neapolitan revolt destroyed a treaty previously drawn up with the Habsburgs. What really separated Castlereagh from Metternich was the latter’s temporary reconciliation with Alexander, and the adoption of a more united ideological stance by the autocratic powers. Even so, there was always the prospect of further contact until Castlereagh’s death in 1822.

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