Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Letters by James M. Lindenberger

By James M. Lindenberger

This e-book provides an up to date translation of seventy-nine letters and fragments, almost the whole corpus of surviving letters in Aramaic and Hebrew all the way down to the time of Alexander, omitting simply the main fragmentary and the main formulaic. This comprises the correspondence from old Jewish writers at Yavneh-Yam (7th Century), Arad and Lachish (6th), and Elephantine (5th). There also are administrative letters from Persian bureaucrats, inner most advertisement and kinfolk correspondence from Egypt, and different scattered letters from Assyria, Egypt, Philistia, and Idumaea. additionally integrated are brief notes in Edomite, Ammonite, and Phoenician (one in every one language). The revised variation is supplemented by way of an extra 9 texts, a few of them released very lately, no longer present in the 1994 variation. Translations are actually supplied with line numbers, and a few were stronger within the gentle of contemporary experiences. each one letter seems to be along the unique textual content in sq. script. short introductions set every one team of letters into its ancient and social context. The association inside each one language crew is approximately chronological.

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Lkb ? . . ¿ wlby_w_ wzja ? . . ¿ 5 ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˜klm arm ? . . . . . . . . . . . . ¿ hnz adgnw rxn ˚db[ htbfw 8 ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¿ ns rwdn• rpsw atmb hjp 9 B 1 10 To Pharaoh, Lord of Kings, from your servant King Adon of [Ekron. May the gods of] 2heaven and earth and Beel-shemayn [the great] god [seek abundantly at all times the welfare of my lord Pharaoh, Lord of Kings. j [ .

Their arms are inscribed, and they swore an oath in my presence that they had indeed defected. They were, after all, in Bit-Amukkani! ” Upaqa-ana-arbail has put Nabu-zer-ukin and Ahishay [in prison in . . ), Shemeh-yeqar, and Abbaya [taken away]. When Upaqa-ana-arbail arrives in Ashur, he is to return them immediately to Apqu [ . . ] . ” my name “Bel-etir” is inscribed on their arms. Call them in and ask them whether it is true: [ . . ] 13[ . . ] Are they my slaves? Did they defect? Were they with the men from Bit-Amukkani?

Their edition has been collated with earlier editions (especially those of Sachau 1911, Cowley 1923, and Driver 1954, 1965) and with published photographs and, whenever possible, confirmed by examination of the original texts. d The Hebrew letters and the Phoenician letter are based on the edition of Pardee 1982, with some revisions following Renz 1995 and others, with the same qualifications as for the Aramaic texts. e The readings of the Aramaic ostraca are my own. Originals were examined and new photographs taken whenever possible.

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