Analysis of Complex Diseases: A Mathematical Perspective by Guanyu Wang PhD

By Guanyu Wang PhD

A complicated affliction consists of many etiological and danger components working at a number of levels―molecular, mobile, organismal, and environmental. The occurrence of such ailments as melanoma, weight problems, and diabetes are expanding in incidence, urging us to imagine essentially and use a broader standpoint to spot their connection and revolutionize remedies. the certainty of organic information derived from learning ailments could be improved through theories and mathematical versions, which make clear the massive photo and aid to bare the overarching mechanisms that govern complicated organic phenomena.

Focusing on ailments regarding mobile power metabolism, equivalent to melanoma and diabetes, Analysis of advanced illnesses: A Mathematical Perspective provides a holistic strategy for illuminating the molecular mechanisms of those ailments and the evolutionary underpinning in their simultaneous epidemics. utilizing arithmetic to spot styles of deviation from normality, or the fit state―spanning a number of degrees from molecules to the organism―the writer identifies a variety of dynamical behaviors that correspond to both mobile body structure or pathology. He makes use of the data from a number of degrees to be able to increase a unified conception, including the invention that convinced illnesses may possibly stem from well-evolved, important mechanisms activated within the incorrect context.

This e-book is split into 3 components. half I makes a speciality of the organismal point to explain general body structure and the way the physique as an entire meets its practical standards. half II addresses the subcellular, molecular point to clarify the organizing rules of mobile biomolecules to satisfy the calls for of the organism. half III examines advanced ailments by means of combining info from the organismal point and the molecular point, supplying a paradigm that may be prolonged to the research of alternative different types of illnesses.

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Under basal aerobic conditions, 60% of energy comes from fat (free fatty acids and triglycerides), 35% from carbohydrates (primarily as glucose), and 5% from amino acids and ketone bodies. However, these proportions vary widely according to nutritional state. For example, during starvation, lactate can be recycled by the heart, which can then be burned aerobically in the citric acid cycle, liberating much more ATP (see the next section). In the condition of diabetes, more fat and less carbohydrate is used due to the reduced induction of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of the cell.

Therefore, the role of the proton gradient is not to form ATP but to release it from the synthase. 1 GLYCOGENESIS Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage. This process is activated during rest periods following the Cori cycle, in the liver, and also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels, for example after a carbohydrate-containing meal. For we humans, a continuous supply of exogenous glucose is impractical, because we ingest food only discretely — typically three meals a day.

The reaction is catalyzed by phosphoglycerate mutase: 3-Phosphoglycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate. 8) The dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate results in the production of phosphoenolpyruvate, which has a high phosphoryl-transfer potential: 2-Phosphoglycerate Phosphoenolpyruvate + H2 O. 9) Phosphoenolpyruvate transfers a phosphoryl group to ADP to form ATP and pyruvate. This reaction, catalyzed by pyruvate kinase, is virtually irreversible: Phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP + H+ → Pyruvate + ATP. 10) Taking the three stages together, the net reaction of glycolysis can be represented by Glucose + 2Pi + 2ADP + 2NAD+ → 2Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2H2 O.

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