A Short Introduction to Epidemiology 2nd Edition, 2005 by Neil Pearce Centre for Public Health Research Massey

By Neil Pearce Centre for Public Health Research Massey University

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Extra resources for A Short Introduction to Epidemiology 2nd Edition, 2005

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G. genetic factors), or whose day to day variation is unrelated to the main exposure (Pope and Schwartz, 1996). On the other hand, time series data often require special statistical techniques because any two factors that show a time trend will be correlated (Diggle et al, 1994). For example, even a threemonth study of lung function in children will generally show an upward trend due to growth, as well as learning effects (Pope and Schwartz, 1996). g. changes in lung function over time may depend on the baseline level (Schouten and Tager, 1996).

1: Basic Statistics Basic Concepts taken from the same population, then the mean will vary between samples. Even if the underlying population is not normally distributed, the means of the samples will be approximately normally distributed provided that the samples are sufficiently large (how "large" depends on how non-normally distributed the population is). The standard deviation of the sample means is termed the standard error of the mean. 96 standard errors of the overall population mean. Usually, a study only involves one sample, but the standard error can be estimated by dividing the standard deviation of the sample by the square root of the number of people in the sample.

Statistical methods in medical research. 4th ed Oxford: Blackwell. Asher I, Keil U, Anderson HR, Beasley R, et al (1995). International study of asthma and allergies in childhood (ISAAC): rationale and methods. Eur Resp J 8: 483-91. Greenland S (2000). Principles of multilevel modelling. Int J Epidemiol 2000; 29: 158-67. Greenland S (2001). Ecologic versus individual-level sources of bias in ecologic estimates of contextual health effects, Int J Epidemiol 30: 1343-50. Beaglehole R, Bonita R, Kjellstrom T (1993).

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