By Abigail Firey
Among the 3rd and 16th centuries, penance (the acts or gestures played to make amends for transgression, often with an curiosity within the salvation of the penitent's soul) was once a very important mode of participation in either society and the cosmos. Penance was once integrated into political and criminal negotiations, it erupted in improvisational social dramas, it was once topic to experimentation and innovation, and it saturated western tradition with photographs of contrition, anguish, and reconciliation. in the course of the past due vintage, medieval, and early glossy sessions, rituals for the correction of human mistakes turned either subtle and popular.Creativity in penitential expression displays the variety and complexity of social and religious occasions during which penance used to be very important. utilizing hitherto unconsidered resource fabrics, the members chart new perspectives on how in western tradition, human behavior was once modulated and directed in styles formed by means of the fearsome but embraced practices of penance. participants are R. Emmet McLaughlin, Rob Meens, Kevin Uhalde, Claudia Rapp, Dominique Iogna-Prat, Abigail Firey, Karen Wagner, Joseph Goering, H. Ansgar Kelly, Torstein Jorgensen, Wietse de Boer, Ronald okay. Rittgers, Gretchen Starr-LeBeau, and Jodi Bilinkoff.
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Extra info for A New History of Penance (Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition)
Binterim, 5:285–91, went to some lengths to defuse the evidence for confession to the laity. truth, tradition and history 33 outrageous claims, and financial chicanery of indulgences also came in for frequent comment. 90 Catholic historians were clearly on the defensive for most of the 19th century. There were no figures of the stature of Baronius, Morin, or Martène. 94 89 De Lasteyrie, 1:xi, 134; 2:141–42. ” 90 Binterim, 5:310–12, claimed that the seal predated Christ but was only given a special term by the scholastics.
8. 68 Schmittlein, Dissertatio, pp. 3, 16. 69 Morin, pp. 4a–4av; Tournely, pp. 4bv, 40–41, 187, 188; Juénin, 1:1. 70 One wonders how Martène, pp. 761–63, reconciled the Church’s teaching on priestly absolution with his evidence that as late as the 13th century, deacons had heard confessions and that the laity, and even abbesses, had also done so. 30 r. emmet mclaughlin The First Secular Critiques: Nineteenth Century In the wake of the Enlightenment and French Revolution, the Catholic Church faced a new interpretation of the history of penance.
114 The resulting publications still form the basis for historical study of the sacrament. Liberal Protestant historians blended the secular and Protestant traditions in an updated critique of medieval and early modern penance. Their own preference for a doctrinally broad and morally centred interpretation of Christianity led them to harp upon the laxity of the late medieval penitential regime. Fearing the politically potent confessional in a democratic state,115 Henry Charles Lea (1825–1909) skilfully drew upon intra-Catholic arguments to attack the doctrine of attrition, the deleterious affects of indulgences, the granting of indulgences for the dead, and solicitation in the confessional.