By William E. Harkins, Marie Hynková
Tips on how to communicate Czech.
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Extra resources for A Modern Czech Grammar
Notice that the embedded S of (4) is dominated by a matrix verb which is not of the hearsay type, and a direct speech reading is conveyed. The resultant sentence is potentially ambiguous, as indicated by the English translation. However, it should be stressed that both readings do not receive equal preference. Because of the preference for the direct discourse strategy, the direct speech reading exhibits overwhelming preference over the indirect narration reading. This tendency has, in the past, led both native and non-native grammarians to analyze the complementizer ki as a quotaiive marker which lakes the place of inverted commas, the English quotation marker.
If we question the subject of the relative clause in (57), it results in an ill-formed output (57a). Similarly, the object of the relative clause cannot be questioned. Also, the sentential subject constraint is also met in Punjabi. 3 Constituents of a noun phrase that can be questioned A noun phrase may consist of the following items: (i) demonstrative pronoun, (ii) quantifier, (iii) intensifies (iv) descriptive adjective, (v) classifier/specifier, (vi) possessive adjective, (vii) possessor, (viii) particle.
What is the matter? in aaiaa ai ki (3) suNaN vice 6 hearing in that come-pstms he is aavegaa. 1 (Impersonal sentences such as (3) are henceforth referred as 'hearsaytype* sentences) As is clear from the English translation of the above three sentences, the complementizer ki 'that' precedes the quoted material in 1 Syntax (1-2) and the reported material in (3). However, it should be stressed that it is the context that renders the reading unambiguous. The syntax of direct speech and that of indirect speech are not different from each other as is the case in languages such as English.