A German women's movement: class and gender in Hanover, by Nancy R. Reagin

By Nancy R. Reagin

Nancy Reagin analyzes the rhetoric, options, and courses of greater than 80 bourgeois women's institutions in Hanover, a wide provincial capital, from the Imperial interval to the Nazi seizure of energy. She examines the social and demographic foundations of the Hanoverian women's stream, interweaving neighborhood background with advancements at the nationwide point. utilizing the German adventure as a case examine, Reagin explores the hyperlinks among political conservatism and a feminist schedule in response to a trust in innate gender differences.Reagin's research contains a wide selection of women's organizations—feminist, nationalist, spiritual, philanthropic, political, undefined. It specializes in the ways that bourgeois women's classification historical past and political socialization, and their aid of the belief of 'spiritual motherhood,' mixed inside of an antidemocratic weather to supply a conservative, maternalist method of women's matters and different political issues. in response to Reagin, the truth that the women's flow advanced during this approach is helping to give an explanation for why such a lot of middle-class ladies discovered nationwide Socialism attractive.

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The SPD was excluded from the gentlemen's agreement that "nonpartisan" municipal administration represented, and the SPD's policies were never included in the bürgerliche consensus according to which the city was run. This was the political environment within which the Hanover women's movement developed. Local women's associations were founded in a rapidly growing urban economy, a society that was politically dominated by local notables. The Bürgertum itself was initially split by rivalries between National Liberal and Guelph sympathizers, but was united in the face of the threat posed by the SPD.

My family and friends contributed to my work in ways that were different, but no less essential, than the help I received from colleagues. I have been fortunate in having the steadfast friendship of my colleagues Marilyn Thornton Williams and Mary Pickering. My parents were sure that I would complete this project long before I ever was, which also gave me confidence. Mary Masters gave me expert and thoughtful assistance in compiling my index. Anne Alworth provided affectionate child care for my daughter while I worked on this study.

The emergence of this wing destroyed the Hanover movement's prewar tradition of coalition building across confessional lines, which had included the local Jewish Women's League. The Housewives' Association, along with other groups from the center and right of the Hanover women's movement, kept up a constant drumbeat within the world of Weimar clubwomen, an angry discussion on such topics as the decline of the German family; the need to increase the German birthrate; the necessity of protecting Deutschtum within and outside of Germany's borders; and repeated denunciations of the postwar settlement, which trumpeted Germany's oppression by the rest of the world.

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