A garden of quanta: Essays in honor of Hiroshi Ezawa by A Tonomura, T Nakamura, I Ojima

By A Tonomura, T Nakamura, I Ojima

This ebook is a set of studies and essays in regards to the contemporary wide-ranging advancements within the components of quantum physics. The articles have as a rule been written on the graduate point, yet a few are obtainable to complex undergraduates. they'll function sturdy introductions for starting graduate scholars in quantum physics who're searching for instructions. elements of mathematical physics, quantum box theories and statistical physics are emphasised.

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The gradual emergence of civil society institutions to political significance in the 1990s also contributed to the dissemination of liberal ideas in Turkish society. 45 Both Islamists and minority groups came to understand that political liberalization would mean less state interference in society and improved protection of human rights. Hence, they both became active proponents of measures that favored the liberalization of political culture. 47 According to this argument, the price of liberal reform and the restriction of national sovereignty would be the disintegration of Turkish national ideology and—possibly—Turkey itself.

The stance of social actors who played a key role in supporting or obstructing the reform process will be scrutinized, as well as the incidence of social learning, a crucial indicator for the change of political culture. In the concluding chapter, the liberalizing effect of the European Union will be assessed in whole. 4 Chapter 2 The Hi stor ical Background to t he D ebate on Tu rkish Pol itical Cu ltu re Th e E merg enc e o f th e Republi c Warfare, massacres, and population exchanges in the first quar- ter of the twentieth century had altered the multireligious character of Anatolia, establishing a formidable Muslim preponderance.

27 The Kemalist elite showed its unwillingness to tolerate even “loyal” opposition and its inability to mobilize popular support for its reform program. Ataturk even came to the point of declaring that “liberalism is a system applied in colonies! Yet we are not and will not become a colony. ”28 While the Turkish people seemed willing to endorse any dissenting political movement that could loosen the grip of the Kemalist elite over the state and society,29 democracy and political liberalism seemed to be a very low priority at that time.

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