By Mas'ud ibn Umar Taftazani
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Extra resources for A Commentary on the Creed of Islam
Al-Ghazzali, Uaqajid d-Faldsifa, III, 46 ft. al-Najdt, pp. ; Ibn Sina, Macdonald, "Wahm and its Cognates," Jour. Roy. At. , 1922, pp. ; Terms, p. 304; Wolfson, "Internal Senses," Harv. Theol. ; al-Ghatzali, Maqdfid al-Faldfifa, III, 46 ft. Diet, of Tech. CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE 18 portance to the details of surmises (al-hadsiydt), experiences (al-tajriblyat), immediate perceptions (al-badihtydt) and speculations (al-nazarlydt) 9 and because all these go back to Reason, they made Reason a third cause which knowledge by merely giving attention to or by drawing to itself a surmise or an experience or the arrangement of premises.
Are five/meaning that of necessity Reason determines their existence. But the proofs for the internal senses, which the Philosophers maintain, are in- complete according to the fundamentals of Islam. namely, hearing (al-sam)/l\. is a faculty (qiiwa) placed in the nerves spread out in the cavity of the ear hole, by which sounds are perceived. This is by way of connecting with the ear hole the air which has assumed the quality of the sounds, that  Allah then creates perception in the soul meaning (al-nafs).
It is be objected that in the case of necessary types of knowledge there irregularity or contradiction; still, we do find in the case of such may no knowledge that the knowledge that one half of is two who employ Reason is stronger than the some affirmation of the existence of Alexander. Furthermore, of those people in their investigations, such as al-Sumanrya Brahmins (al-Bardhimd) edge.  This argument 1T and the deny that mutawdtir narrative produces knowlis inapplicable as an objection, for it is to be admitted that various kinds of necessary knowledge sometimes differ from one another by difference in usage, custom, and practice, and in the occurring to one's there mind and conceiving the terms of judgments (atraf al-ahl(am).